Conditions at crisis-hit NHS Highland were so severe some victims “suffered significant and serious harm and trauma”.
An independent probe warned the “serious consequences” included depression, alcoholism, drug abuse and suicidal thoughts.
The review by John Sturrock QC also said that senior Scottish Government officials were aware of the “dysfunctional” situation for a “considerable period of time” before taking action.
Mr Sturrock found a “significant majority” of those quizzed are experiencing, or have done in the past, fear, intimidation and inappropriate behaviour at work.
It also said many people feel unable to speak out about the issue and believe there is no safe mechanism for them to do so.
Health Secretary Jeane Freeman yesterday apologised to workers.
She ordered the probe in November amid accusations of a “systemic culture of bullying” at the board, which is facing a £20million deficit this year.
A group of doctors blew the whistle on bullying and intimidation, claiming it had gone on for at least a decade.
Mr Sturrock’s review was contacted by 340 people from most departments at NHS Highland, with 282 taking part in face-to-face meetings or in written submissions.
Two-thirds of respondents wanted to report experiences of bullying, with the review concluding that “many hundreds” had been subjected to inappropriate behaviour.
Senior managers were said to have an “autocratic, intimidating, closed and suppressing” attitude to staff issues.
Mr Sturrock warned many workers “appear to have suffered significant and serious harm and trauma”.
He added: “There are, it appears, serious concerns about the mental and physical wellbeing of a significant number of staff.
“There are, I am told, links to anxiety, depression, withdrawal, alcoholism, drug abuse, suicidal thoughts and other serious consequences.”
His review said many employees had resigned, moved to other jobs or retired as a direct result of their experiences, even though it meant taking a pay cut.
At Holyrood, Ms Freeman said other health boards should learn lessons from the report. She also announced a task force to tackle the issue.
Ms Freeman said the review had identified “a number of significant cultural issues” that did not reflect NHS values.
“That can neither be acceptable nor allowed to continue,” she added.
“I am well aware that concerns about bullying and a desire to secure a positive culture is shared across our health service.”
NHS Highland chief executive Iain Stewart said: “Already, it seems clear that the treatment of some staff within NHS Highland in the past has not always lived up to the high standards expected and, for that, I apologise on behalf of the board.”
Highlands and Islands Tory MSP Edward Mountain accused the Government of “dithering”.
He said: “According to the report it appears that the Scottish Government knew about the dysfunctional nature of NHS Highland in autumn 2017 and yet did nothing about it, waiting to see what others would do.
“In my 40 years of professional experience, I have never read such a damning report.”
BMA Scotland chairman Lewis Morrison said the concerns raised in the report were relevant across the country, pointing out that similar fears were raised this week at NHS Ayrshire and Arran.
He added: “In any industry bullying like this would be troubling, but in a service where those bullied are making life-and-death decisions, and caring for those at a time of crisis, it is completely unacceptable.”
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